Prehistoric Period
Traces of Prehistoric cultures in Cappadocia can most easily be found around KöskHoyuk/Nigde, Asiklihoyuk/Aksaray and in the Civelek cave near Nevsehir. Excavations in these three areas are still taking place.

Asikli Hoyuk (mound)
Archaeological excavations discovered the first brick living quarters in Cappadocia in Asikli Hoyuk (mound), an extension of Aksaray's Ihlara Canyon settlements. Yellow and pink clay plaster was used in making the walls and floors of the houses, some of the most beautiful and complicated architectural examples of first towns.

They buried the dead in the Hocker position, like a foetus in the womb, on the floor of their houses. According to Prof. U. Esin, who researched at Asikli Hoyuk, a population greater that had been previously theorised is revealed by the abundance and density of the settlements in these areas in the Aceramic Neolithic Period.

No where else in Anatolia can the unique obsidian tools be found like those from Cappadocian Tumulus. Figurines, made from lightly baked clay, were unearthed together with flat stone axes wrought in many fine shapes, chisels and coulters made from bones and ornaments made from copper, agate and other different kinds of stones. Evidence provided by a skeleton found here indicates that the earliest brain surgery (trepanation) known in the world was performed on a woman 20-25 years of age at Asikli Hoyuk.

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